Surah Al-Qiyamah – سورة القيامة

Name:
The Surah has been so named after the word al-Qiyamah in the first verse. This is not only the name but also the title of this Surah, for it is devoted to Resurrection itself.

Period of Revelation:
Although there is no tradition to indicate its period of revelation, yet there is in the subject matter of this Surah an internal evidence, which shows that it is one of the earliest Surahs to be sent down at Makkah. After verse 15 the discourse is suddenly interrupted and the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) told: “Do not move your tongue to remember this Revelation hastily. It is Our responsibility to have it remembered and read. Therefore, when We are reciting it, listen to its recital carefully. Again, it is Our responsibility to explain its meaning.” Then, from verse 20 onward the same theme which was interrupted at verse 15, is resumed. This parenthetical passage, according to both the context and the traditions, has been interpqsed here for the reason that when the Angel Gabriel was reciting this Surah to the Holy Prophet, the Holy Prophet, lest he should forget its words later, was repeating them at the same moment. This in fact happened at the time when the coming down and receipt of Revelation was yet a new experience for him and he was not yet fully used to receiving it calmly.
There are two other instances also of this in the Quran. First, in Surah Ta Ha the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) has been told: “And see that you do not hasten to recite the Quran belore its revelation is completed to you.” (v. 114). Then, in Surah Al-A’la, it has been said: “We shall enable you to recite:, then you shall never forget.” (v. 6). Later, when the Holy Prophet became fully used to receiving the Revelation well, there remained no need to give him any such instruction. That is why except for these three, there is no other instance of this in the Quran. Theme and Subject Matter Most of the Surahs, from here till the end of the Quran, in view of their content and style, seem to have been sent down in the period when after the first seven verses of Surah Al-Muddaththir, revelation of the Quran began like a shower of rain: Thus, in the succesively revealed Surahs Islam and its fundamental concepts and moral teachings were presented so forcefully and effectively in pithy, brief sentences and the people of Makkah warned so vehemently on their errors and deviations that the Quraish chiefs were utterly confounded. Therefore, before the next Hajj season came they held the conference for devising schemes to defeat the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) as has been mentioned in the Introduction to the Surah Al-Muddaththir above. In this Surah, addressing the deniers of the Hereafter, replies have been given to each of their doubts and objections, strong arguments have been given to prove the possibility, occurrence and necessity of the Resurrection and Hereafter, and also it has been pointed out clearly that the actual reason of the people’s denying the Hereafter is not that they regard it as impossible rationally but because their selfish motives do not allow thein to affirm it.
At the same time, the people have been warned, as if to say: “The event, the occurrence of which you deny, will inevitably come: all your deeds will be brought and placed before you. As a matter of fact, even before any of you sees his record, he will be knowing fully well what he has done in the world, for no man is unaware of himself, no matter what excuses and pretences he may offer to deceive the world and deceive himself in respect of his misdeeds.”

Download Tafseer of Surah Al Qiyamah (URDU) pdf format

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Medical Pioneers of Muslim Civilization

 

Medical Pioneers of Muslim Civilization

Islam’s forgotten contributions to medical science

Ingrid Hehmeyer:
Assistant Professor of History of Science and Technology, Department of History, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ont.

Aliya Khan:
Professor of Clinical Medicine, Divisions of Endocrinology and Geriatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont.

The transmission of medical knowledge can be traced to some of the earliest writings in human history. Yet a particularly fruitful period for advancement in medical science emerged with the rise of Islam. For the most part, Western scholarship belittles the contribution of the physicians of the Islamic world. They are usually perceived as simple purveyors of Greek science to the scholars of the Renaissance. However, the facts show otherwise.

For example, the 11th-century Iraqi scientist Ibn al-Haytham, known as Alhazen in Latin, developed a radically new concept of human vision. Ancient Greek notions of a visual spirit emanating from the eyes and allowing an object to be perceived were replaced by a straightforward account on the eye as an optical instrument. Ibn al-Haytham’s detailed description of ocular anatomy forms the basis for his theory of image formation, which is explained through the refraction of light rays passing between 2 media of different densities. Ibn al-Haytham derived this fundamentally new theory from experimental investigations. His Book of Optics was translated into Latin in the 12th century and continued to be studied both in the Islamic world and in Europe until the 17th century.

 

 

Ibn al-Nafis, a 13th-century Syrian physician, re-addressed the question of blood movement in the human body. The authoritative explanation had been given by the Greek physicians more than 1000 years earlier. But what had caused them a major problem was how the blood flowed from the right ventricle of the heart to the left, prior to being pumped out into the body. According to Galen (2nd century), blood reached the left ventricle through invisible passages in the septum. Referring to evidence derived from dissection, Ibn al-Nafis described the firm, impenetrable nature of the ventricular septum and made it clear that there were no passages in it. Instead, he concluded, the blood in the right ventricle must be carried to the left by way of the lungs. The description of the pulmonary circulation by Ibn al-Nafis was a breakthrough in the understanding of human anatomy and physiology. His approach to the study of medicine was exemplary for a scientist of his time as he demonstrated the need to evaluate the existing knowledge and reject those concepts that were inaccurate as shown by his own observations. Thus he was able to further the medical learning that was inherited from the Greeks.

The 10th-century physician Abu ‘l-Qasim al-Zahrawi, from Muslim Spain, was clearly frustrated by the state of the art in surgery during his time. In order to advance surgical knowledge, he wrote a book that described surgical procedures and gave detailed illustrations of the necessary surgical instruments — several of which were devised by the author himself — together with his observations and comments based on experience. We owe it to al-Zahrawi that surgery became integrated into scientific medicine instead of being a practice left to cuppers and barbers.

Al-Zahrawi’s work had a profound influence on the emerging medical science in medieval and early modern Europe, where the author was known as Abulcasis or Albucasis. However, for centuries the quality of the translations from Arabic into Latin and the accompanying illustrations were less than satisfactory. For example, al-Zahrawi’s treatise contained an illustration of a vaginal speculum and 2 types of forceps for extracting a dead fetus. The speculum was operated by a screw mechanism (at the top; see illustration) and had functional blades. The Arabic caption informs us that the spear-like feature suspended behind the right side of the speculum is a separate instrument, namely a double-edged scalpel (and therefore not connected with the speculum). A 14th-century Latin copy of al-Zahrawi’s work, however, shows that the Western illustrator was entirely unfamiliar with the speculum and its mechanical principles. He drew it upside down, with the blades being mistakenly depicted as a decorative bar. The 6-lobed shape at the foot of the illustration, which ought to be the screw, clearly had no mechanical function. The lantern-shaped device suspended at the right misrepresents the scalpel, which has now been integrated into the speculum. Such distortions show that, in the 14th century, the Western world had much to learn from the physicians of the Islamic world.

In the introduction to his book, al-Zahrawi pointed out that good practice in surgery requires a sound knowledge of anatomy. He also emphasized his religious convictions as a Muslim believer. Al-Zahrawi, as well as many of his colleagues, would have considered the study of anatomy not only as indispensable to their professional advancement, but also as a means to understand the wisdom of God’s design and, in particular, the perfection of the human being, God’s supreme creation. This mode of thinking was best expressed by the 12th-century physician and philosopher from Muslim Spain Ibn Rushd, known in Latin as Averroes, who stated: “He who is engaged in the science of anatomy, increases his belief in God.” However, the anatomical study of the human body was problematic because it required dissection. A number of scholars — religious scholars in particular — seem to have been opposed to the practice since it implied mutilation of God’s most noble creation. The medical texts on the other hand — particularly those of the 12th and 13th centuries — make frequent references to dissection, both animal and human, and include detailed descriptions of the practices involved. For a discussion of the complex issue of human dissection in the medieval Islamic world, see Savage-Smith.

The important point here is that dissection of the human body seems to have been a controversial issue, but that those involved in the debate did not feel a need to hide their opinions. This is just one example of the intellectual open mindedness in early Islamic times. The receptiveness to new ideas included the heritage of the pre-Islamic world, such as the writings of Galen, which entered the realm of Islam from the 9th century on through systematic translations into Arabic. In the same way as the heritage of the ancients was studied with great respect, non-Muslim scientists, Jews and Christians in particular, played important roles in the scientific community. It was the open, non-dogmatic atmosphere that encouraged people to engage in debate, share ideas and seek new knowledge by asking questions and examining evidence.

 

Pakistan Air Force

 

Pakistan Air Force (PAF)

پاک فضائیہ

 

Pakistan Air Force (PAF) (پاک فضائیہ, Pak Fiza’ya) is the air arm of the Pakistan Armed Forces and is primarily tasked with the aerial defence of Pakistan with a secondary role to provide air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy. The PAF also has a tertiary role to provide strategic air transport and logistics capability to Pakistan. The PAF employs 65,000 full-time personnel (including approximately 3,000 pilots) and operates approximately 400 combat aircraft alongside various transport and training aircraft.

Commander: Air Chief Marshal Rao Qamar Suleman (March 19, 2009 – present)

 


The primary mission statement of the PAF was given by Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, during his address to the passing out cadets of the Pakistan Air Force Academy Risalpur on 13 April, 1948, and has been taken as an article of faith by all coming generations of PAF personnel:

“ A country without a strong air force is at the mercy of any aggressor, Pakistan must build up its own Air Force as quickly as possible, it must be an efficient Air Force, second to none.”

But the present scenario has required and enabled the Force to come up with an improved and up-to-date Mission Statement: “To provide, in synergy with other Armed Forces, an efficient, assured and cost-effective aerial defense of Pakistan.

 

A glimpse from the past of a PAF fighter pilot of 1965 war against India


 

 

Women in the PAF


Females have been enrolled in the Pakistan Air Force since its creation, but their induction had been limited to administrative branches only. However, females are now allowed to enroll in the aerospace engineering and other programs of the nation’s air force academy. Two batches of female fighter pilots graduated in year 2006 bringing out the first female pilots of the Pakistan Air Force.

On March 31 2006, Saba Khan, Nadia Gul, Mariam Khalil and Saira Batool were among 36 aviation cadets who received their wings after three and a half years of regular training. Saira Amin, a female cadet, has made history by being the first woman pilot to have won the Sword of Honour in any defence academy of Pakistan, at the passing out parade of the 117th GD (P) at Risalpur Of the first four female pilots, none qualified for a fighter aircraft squadron of the Air Force. They are therefore now part of the light communication squadron of Pakistan Air Force. Later on PAF High command decided to close women induction in future fighter courses.

 

Nishan-e-Haider – نشان حیدر

 

The Nishan-e-Haider (نشان حیدر) (Order of Ali), is the highest military award given by Pakistan. Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas (1951–August 20, 1971) is the only officer of the PAF to be awarded the Nishan-e-Haider for sacrificing his life to save a plane hijacking.

 

Others awarded of the PAF include:

  • Squadron Leader Muhammad Mahmood Alam also known as M. M. Alam Who is credited in Pakistan with downing nine Indian fighters six of them are Hunters of the Indian Air Force in air-to-air combats, 5 of them in less than a minute.
  • Squadron Leader Sarfraz Rafiqui who did not leave the battle, and even with his jammed guns continued to chase an Indian Air Force pilot until finally being shot down by a Hunter aircraft, flown by the IAF.

 

 

Iqbal ka Pakistan – 14th August Special (2009)

 

Iqbal Ka Pakistan
14th August Special (2009)

A real good thought provoking discussion, all the participants are knowledgeable and revolutionary. They all have only one agenda and that’s to raise voice against Pakistan’s elite (Ashraafia). We as a Pakistani need to support these honest people and put our share in this soft revolution to change the get rid of corruption in government and buruecratic system of Pakistan.

 

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Qur’an and Knowledge – by Dr. Israr Ahmed

 

Qur’an and Knowledge (Spirtual aspect)

 

A very good lecture by well known scholar Dr. Israr Ahmed. This lecture sheds some light on the topics discussed in Holy Qur’an, the wordings and spirtual understanding.

 

Type: Religious, Knowledge
Language: Urdu/Arabic
Lebgth: 19 minutes (approx)

 

Please share your comments with us.
Thanks!

 

Part 1/2

 

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Pakistan ka Qaumi Tarana قومی ترانہ – Pakistan’s National Anthem

قومی ترانہ

Lyrics: Hafeez Jallundari
Music: Akbar Mohammed, 1950
Adopted: 1954

Urdu

:پاک سرزمین شاد

کشور حسین شاد باد

تو نشان عزم عالیشان

! ارض پاکستان

مرکز یقین شاد باد

 

:پاک سرزمین کا نظام

قوت اخوت عوام

قوم ، ملک ، سلطنت

! پائندہ تابندہ باد

شاد باد منزل مراد

 

:پرچم ستارہ و ہلال

رہبر ترقی و کمال

ترجمان ماضی شان حال

! جان استقبال

سایۂ خدائے ذوالجلال

 

Transliteration – Roman

Pāk sarzamīn shād bād

Kishwar-e-hasīn shād bād

Tū nishān-e-`azm-e-`alīshān

Arz-e-Pākistān!

Markaz-e-yaqīn shād bād

 

Pāk sarzamīn kā nizām

Qūwat-e-ukhūwat-e-`awām

Qaum, mulk, sultanat

Pā-inda tābinda bād!

Shād bād manzil-e-murād

 

Parcham-e-sitāra-o-hilāl

Rahbar-e-tarraqqī-o-kamāl

Tarjumān-e-māzī, shān-e-hāl

Jān-e-istiqbāl!

Sāyah-e-Khudā-e-Zū-l-Jalāl

 

Qaumi Tarana with English subtitles

 

Abbas Ibn Firnas – A Muslim Scientist

 

Abbas Ibn Firnas (810 – 887 A.D.), also known as Abbas Qasim Ibn Firnas and العباس بن فرناس (Arabic language), was an Arabic-speaking Berber polymath, born in Izn-Rand Onda, al-Andalus (today’s Ronda, Spain), who lived in the Caliphate of Córdoba.

Ibn Firnas designed a water clock called Al-Maqata, devised a means of manufacturing colorless glass, made corrective lenses (“reading stones”), developed a chain of rings that could be used to simulate the motions of the planets and stars, and developed a process for cutting rock crystal that allowed Spain to cease exporting quartz to Egypt to be cut.

In his house he built a room in which spectators witnessed stars, clouds, thunder, and lightning, which were produced by mechanisms hidden in his basement laboratory. He also devised “some sort of metronome”. He is also said to have made an attempt at flight using a set of wings.

“ Among other very curious experiments which he made, one is his trying to fly. He covered himself with feathers for the purpose, attached a couple of wings to his body, and, getting on an eminence, flung himself down into the air, when according to the testimony of several trustworthy writers who witnessed the performance, he flew a considerable distance, as if he had been a bird, but, in alighting again on the place whence he had started, his back was very much hurt, for not knowing that birds when they alight come down upon their tails, he forgot to provide himself with one. ”

He has been commemorated on stamps from Libya, by a statue near the Baghdad International Airport, and by a namesake airport north of Baghdad. The crater Ibn Firnas on the Moon is also named in his honor.

The story is described 750 years later by the Moroccan historian Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari (d. 1632) who also cited a verse in a 9th century poem which appears to refer to Firnas’ attempt at flight.

 

A brief documentary to credit Ibn Firnas for his successful attempt to fly.